Density of ABS Material | The Complete Guide

The Density of ABS Plastic

A plastic material’s density is described as the mass per unit volume of a material, generally measured in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) or kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³).

ABS plastic density generally ranges from 1.0 – 1.05 g/cm3  g/cm³ and 1,050 kg/m3.

This value is considered relatively low when compared to other engineering plastics, such as nylon and polycarbonate, but higher when compared to other common plastics, such as polystyrene and PVC.

Before diving into ABS Density, I want to clarify how plastic materials’ density is calculated.

What is Density?

Plastic density is a measure of the mass of a substance per unit volume. It is a fundamental physical property that can identify a material and determine its behavior under different conditions.

The density of a plastic material can be expressed in units of grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) or kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³).

Factors Affecting the Density of ABS

ABS density is affected by many factors, including its chemical composition, processing conditions, and the additives utilized. Adding fillers or reinforcement materials to ABS can increase its density, while incorporating lower-density substances like glass fibers can decrease it.

One of the benefits of having a lower density is that ABS plastic can be more easily molded into complex shapes and can be lighter in weight compared to other engineering plastics.

This makes it ideal for applications where weight is critical, such as in the automotive industry, where lighter components can improve fuel efficiency.

Additionally, ABS plastic is relatively inexpensive compared to other engineering plastics, making it a cost-effective alternative for many applications.

The low density of ABS plastic can also lead to certain drawbacks, such as decreased rigidity and stiffness compared to other engineering plastics.

This may decrease performance in applications requiring high strength and stiffness, such as structural applications. Nevertheless, adding fillers or reinforcements to ABS can offset these disadvantages by enhancing its mechanical properties.

Processing Efficiency with Low-Density of ABS

Due to its low density, viscosity, and manageable processing temperatures, ABS plastic can be molded into various shapes through conventional thermoplastic processing methods like injection molding and blow molding.

These factors make ABS plastic easier to handle and process than other engineering plastics. ABS plastic is also readily paintable and can be decorated, making it an appealing choice for applications that require a polished finish.

In line with its processing prowess, ABS can also be modified into different shapes and sizes depending on the applications. It can be modified to enhance its general properties, such as impact, heat, or chemical resistance, by utilizing additives or copolymerization with other polymers.

How ABS Melting Point Affects its Density 

The melting point of a polymer, such as ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), refers to the temperature at which it transitions from a solid to a liquid state.

Density, however, measures how much mass is packed within a given volume of a substance. The relationship between ABS melting point and its density can be understood as follows. As the temperature of ABS increases toward its melting point, the intermolecular forces holding the material together weaken.

This increases the kinetic energy of the ABS molecules, causing them to move more rapidly and occupy a greater volume.

Consequently, the density of the material decreases as the melting point is approached.  When ABS reaches its melting point, the intermolecular forces are weakened to such an extent that the material transitions into a liquid state.

At this stage, the molecules are no longer arranged in a crystalline structure as they were in the solid state, resulting in a further increase in volume and decrease in density.

So, as the melting point of ABS is reached and surpassed, the material undergoes a phase transition from a solid to a liquid. This transition is accompanied by an increase in volume and a decrease in density as the intermolecular forces holding the material together progressively weaken.

Which is heavier ABS or PLA?

ABS and PLA plastic are two commonly used thermoplastics in 3D printing.

In terms of density, ABS is typically heavier than PLA, with a density range of 1.05-1.08 g/cm3 compared to PLA’s density range of 1.24 g/cm3.

However, It is worth mentioning that the density of ABS and PLA may vary based on the particular variety of the material and the manufacturer. Furthermore, the density of these materials can be changed by using fillers or reinforcements, which can either raise or lower the overall density.

Ultimately, the choice between ABS and PLA will depend on the application’s specific requirements, including the desired strength, stiffness, and heat resistance.


ABS plastic is a versatile material with various properties that make it suitable for various applications. The density of ABS plastic can impact its performance, but it can also be adjusted to meet specific requirements through fillers, reinforcements, and additives.

Understanding the ABS density is essential for selecting the right material for a given application and ensuring optimal performance.

Whether it is used in consumer goods, automotive parts, or structural components, ABS plastic has proven to be a reliable and cost-effective material with many uses.

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